Internet ampliou mobilização contra racismo nos EUA

Visibilidade de casos de abuso de policiais contra negros mudou com a possibilidade de registrar crimes

por Vinicius Neder no Estadão

A pressão popular que levou a Prefeitura de Saint Anthony, na região metropolitana de Minneapolis, a recuar na decisão de permitir o policial envolvido na morte de Philando Castile a voltar ao trabalho é apenas mais um capítulo de uma mudança recente na mobilização por direitos civis de afro-americanos em relação à violência policial. Para especialistas consultados pelo Estado, o problema sempre existiu e a novidade está na possibilidade de registrar abusos e publicar imagens em redes sociais.

“Isso tem sido uma questão historicamente constante para os afro-americanos por anos”, disse a socióloga Tanya Gladney, da Universidade de Saint Thomas, especialista em policiamento. Ainda assim, “é difícil validar” um aumento recente nos casos. “O que eu posso dizer é que a visibilidade aumentou. Quando você tem mais visibilidade, isso muda a percepção sobre a questão.”

Manifestante segura cartaz com a inscrição "Vidas dos negros importam" na frente do Capitólio dos EUA, em Washington, em protesto contra a morte de Alton Sterling e Philando Castile
Manifestante segura cartaz com a inscrição “Vidas dos negros importam” na frente do Capitólio dos EUA, em Washington, em protesto contra a morte de Alton Sterling e Philando Castile

O marco mais famoso dessa tendência é o Black Lives Matter, movimento criado na internet após o assassinato de Trayvon Martin, aos 17 anos, por um vigia na Flórida, em 2012. De lá para cá, houve uma escalada de registros de casos de violência policial e de protestos, às vezes violentos.

A maior onda de manifestações talvez tenha sido no segundo semestre de 2014, após um júri do Missouri recusar o indiciamento de um policial pela morte de Michael Brown, afro-americano de 18 anos baleado na cidade de Ferguson.

Na véspera da morte de Castile, no mês passado, surgiu o vídeo de dois policiais matando a tiros o afro-americano Alton Sterling, na saída de uma loja de conveniência em Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Nos dias seguintes, ataques a tiros contra policiais chocaram o país: em Dallas, Texas, um atirador matou cinco e deixou nove feridos; e, de novo em Baton Rouge, um atirador atingiu seis agentes, matando três. A advogada Nekima Levy-Pounds, presidente da filial de Minnesota da NAACP, diz concordar que a novidade recente é o aumento da visibilidade em razão das redes sociais. “O Black Lives Matter tem sido um catalisador”, disse.

People rally near the White House during over protest about police brutality, Thursday, July 7, 2016, in Washington. (AP Photo/Paul Holston)
People rally near the White House during over protest about police brutality, Thursday, July 7, 2016, in Washington. (AP Photo/Paul Holston)
Protesters angered by two fatal police shootings in two days take to the streets after gathering at Union Square in Manhattan, July 7, 2016. From Warsaw, President Barack Obama described the deaths of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile as symptomatic of racial disparities in the criminal justice system. “To be concerned about these issues is not political correctness. It’s just being an American,” Obama said. (Christopher Lee/The New York Times)
Protesters angered by two fatal police shootings in two days take to the streets after gathering at Union Square in Manhattan, July 7, 2016. From Warsaw, President Barack Obama described the deaths of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile as symptomatic of racial disparities in the criminal justice system. “To be concerned about these issues is not political correctness. It’s just being an American,” Obama said. (Christopher Lee/The New York Times)
People take part in a protest against the killings of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile during a march through Times Square in New York July 7, 2016. REUTERS/Eduardo Munoz
People take part in a protest against the killings of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile during a march through Times Square in New York July 7, 2016. REUTERS/Eduardo Munoz
People shout slogans against police as they take part in a protest against the killings of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile during a march in New York July 7, 2016. REUTERS/Eduardo Munoz
People shout slogans against police as they take part in a protest against the killings of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile during a march in New York July 7, 2016. REUTERS/Eduardo Munoz
Protestors march in front of Police District 2 Station in Chicago on July 2016 after the video Alton Sterling being killed by Baton Rouge Police Department was released last night. Black motorist Philando Castile, 32, a school cafeteria worker, was shot at close range by a Minnesota cop and seen bleeding to death in a graphic video shot by his girlfriend that went viral Thursday, the second fatal police shooting to rock America in as many days. / AFP PHOTO / Tasos Katopodis
Protestors march in front of Police District 2 Station in Chicago on July 2016 after the video Alton Sterling being killed by Baton Rouge Police Department was released last night.
Black motorist Philando Castile, 32, a school cafeteria worker, was shot at close range by a Minnesota cop and seen bleeding to death in a graphic video shot by his girlfriend that went viral Thursday, the second fatal police shooting to rock America in as many days. / AFP PHOTO / Tasos Katopodis
Protestors march in front of Police District 2 Station in Chicago on July 2016 after the video Alton Sterling being killed by Baton Rouge Police Department was released last night. Black motorist Philando Castile, 32, a school cafeteria worker, was shot at close range by a Minnesota cop and seen bleeding to death in a graphic video shot by his girlfriend that went viral Thursday, the second fatal police shooting to rock America in as many days. / AFP PHOTO / Tasos Katopodis
Protestors march in front of Police District 2 Station in Chicago on July 2016 after the video Alton Sterling being killed by Baton Rouge Police Department was released last night.
Black motorist Philando Castile, 32, a school cafeteria worker, was shot at close range by a Minnesota cop and seen bleeding to death in a graphic video shot by his girlfriend that went viral Thursday, the second fatal police shooting to rock America in as many days. / AFP PHOTO / Tasos Katopodis
BATON ROUGE, LA -JULY 06: Protester march to the convenience store where Alton Sterling was shot and killed, July 6, 2016 in Baton Rouge, Louisianna. Sterling was shot by a police officer in front of the Triple S Food Mart in Baton Rouge on Tuesday, July 5, leading the Department of Justice to open a civil rights investigation. Mark Wallheiser/Getty Images/AFP == FOR NEWSPAPERS, INTERNET, TELCOS & TELEVISION USE ONLY ==
BATON ROUGE, LA -JULY 06: Protester march to the convenience store where Alton Sterling was shot and killed, July 6, 2016 in Baton Rouge, Louisianna. Sterling was shot by a police officer in front of the Triple S Food Mart in Baton Rouge on Tuesday, July 5, leading the Department of Justice to open a civil rights investigation. Mark Wallheiser/Getty Images/AFP
== FOR NEWSPAPERS, INTERNET, TELCOS & TELEVISION USE ONLY ==
Protestors congregate at N. Foster Dr. and Fairfields Ave., the location of the Triple S convenience store in Baton Rouge, La., Wednesday, July 6, 2016. Alton Sterling, 37, was shot and killed outside the store by Baton Rouge police, where he was selling CDs. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)
Protestors congregate at N. Foster Dr. and Fairfields Ave., the location of the Triple S convenience store in Baton Rouge, La., Wednesday, July 6, 2016. Alton Sterling, 37, was shot and killed outside the store by Baton Rouge police, where he was selling CDs. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)
BATON ROUGE, LA -JULY 06: (EDITORS NOTE: Image contains profanity.) Protesters dance in the street near the convenience store where Alton Sterling was shot and killed, July 6, 2016 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Sterling was shot by a police officer in front of the Triple S Food Mart in Baton Rouge on Tuesday, July 5, leading the Department of Justice to open a civil rights investigation. Mark Wallheiser/Getty Images/AFP (Photo by Mark Wallheiser/Getty Images) == FOR NEWSPAPERS, INTERNET, TELCOS & TELEVISION USE ONLY ==
BATON ROUGE, LA -JULY 06: (EDITORS NOTE: Image contains profanity.) Protesters dance in the street near the convenience store where Alton Sterling was shot and killed, July 6, 2016 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Sterling was shot by a police officer in front of the Triple S Food Mart in Baton Rouge on Tuesday, July 5, leading the Department of Justice to open a civil rights investigation. Mark Wallheiser/Getty Images/AFP (Photo by Mark Wallheiser/Getty Images)
== FOR NEWSPAPERS, INTERNET, TELCOS & TELEVISION USE ONLY ==

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